Gems Polissya - amber ...
There is one gem ... beautiful golden color,
which has always attracted its secrecy,
shining brilliance, its mysterious properties.
40 million years ago - was an island Northern Ukraine and Belorus i larger part of Poland - the sea. Vykopni plants of this age known from northern Ukraine, but the idea of the animal world is todishniy can give only study of amber. In Ukraine, amber has long been known, but industrial production in Ukraine amber to the 90s of the twentieth century was not, Nowadays, he is held in quarries in Rivnenskiy oblasti.p>
Amber with Rivne region for physico-chemical properties are different from baltiyskoho - he comes with the same "amber tree", i many Polish scientists continues to find it baltiyskym, because the flow of the sea and glaciers amber peremischuvavsya for hundreds of kilometers . Prove it comes from the Ukraine allowed investigation zalyshkiv animals are contained in Rivne burshtyni. Already in the first-studied hundreds of scientists shmatkiv Amber found a new species of insects. Therefore it was decided to create the first in Ukraine Rivne amber collections. "Such collections - only to look at the possibility of living beings, age them - 40 million years. I if modified, the remains of fossil animals - is vidbytkamy on kaminni, here we are dealing with living organisms, sealed how best to study. Such exhibits that are" a window "In the past, examining that, we can predict the future. Nearly 500 new species of fossil insects and other invertebrates can Open researchers in burshtyni produced in Rivnenskiy region.
first development known amber near Kyiv (district Mizhgirya and Vyshgorod) and Volyn (near modern Klesova).
from Paleogene sediments associated only in Ukraine Klesiv clan ¬ above amber. According to the Ukrainian geologist VI Panchenko, it is in the framing of Proterozoic crystalline rocks of the north-western part of the Ukrainian shield sedimentary formation ¬ we Paleogene. Alluvial deposit consists of several sections, two of them open pits 472 and 43 (Large owl). This area is located in 1-4 km north-west of the station Klesov. Productive horizons deposit consists of three sand layers stacked grained quartz sand, which varies enriched clay substance, organic material and it ¬ amber. The bottom layer sporadically enriched chap ¬ ukonitom, why burshtynovmisna breed becomes bluish tint. Pieces of amber reach the size of 10cm. According to VI Panchenko and AS Tkachuk content amber deposit - from 15 to 310 and even 1000 g/m3, average - 50 g/m3. Amber uneven distribution, the maximum ¬ ing it at the base thickness. Age deposits, established by con ¬ Rehoboam pollen analysis, defined as early-and-serednoolihotsenovyy piznolihotsenovyy. Annual extraction of amber Klesivskomu field does not exceed 140 kg. For a short time Klesivsky Amber received recognition vnutrinomu and foreign markets.
Unlike Baltic amber Klesivsky far away from the sea. It is anticipated that in Palaeogene time near the village was the sea shore. Regulation ancient shoreline in Volhynia fixed and other amber finds in this territory ¬ tory.
In Klesivsky deposits of amber is extracted along with the conduct of search and evaluation work. In the field since 1980 annually produced more than 100 kg of stone, 95% amber mined classified yuvelirnho. Sorting gem in Volodarsk Volynsky.
work area is located on the northwestern outskirts of the settlement Klesov Sarnenski district of Rivne region, which is an important mining region at the expense of existing quarries and factories kameneschebnevyh.
In tectonic respect Klesivsky burshtynonosna zone positioned ¬ rotating combination northwestern slope of the Ukrainian crystalline ¬ symbolic array Volyn-Podolsk plates and Pripyat depression and has a two-tier structure. Morphology of the modern surface of the crystal base is determined by its structural position in the north-west slope of the mu ¬ shield.
The complex of works allowed to create a basis for devel ¬ opment methods SRS burshtynonosnyh sands, consider the specific design of the SRS in Rivne region and give guidelines for choosing specific parameters Technology Design.
Studies have shown that the use of jetting method when removing stripping breed has several advantages over excavator. First is the cost of equipment and production cost f ¬ tion meter stripping rocks, which significantly reduces the cost recoverable ¬ tion of amber in general.
calculation extraction burshtynonosnoho sand jetting method using vacuum zemlesosa and hydro ¬ Nevel with whom pressure jets allowed to offer the device for extraction of lump material from underground formations to simulate movement hidrosumi ¬ shee during hidrozmyvu for efficient simulation of suction pipe device selection kuskovatoho material and conduct physical modeling process ¬ not sampling burshtynonosnoyi breed by its hydrodynamic erosion.
use of "burnt stones", namely the so-called him Polishchuky reaches of antiquity. Since it did little medallions, charms from the evil eye, the girls wore coral, amber, not only decorated but also treated. Demand various earrings, rings and bracelets. Masters vytochuvaly stone holders and buttons, cigarette cases and scallops. Especially prized amber with natural inclusions of insects, pieces of bark, seeds, trees, air bubbles.
only in the seventies of the last century, eventually organized commercial harvest amber richest in Polissya field near the village Klesov in Rivne region. In Klesivsky Career quarried granite, and incidentally collected and amber, which there was quite. With its quality is not inferior to the Baltic, and the richness of colors even prevails.
According to the law of Ukraine "On Enterprises" mining amber could only be made public enterprises and organizations. However, this has led to massive illegal mining of this stone individuals. During p'yatnadtsyaty years to establish regular, and most importantly - cost effective mining of amber in required quantities government agencies have failed.
About Amber in our area has been long known, but its state reserves of power, which by the way, the second in the world after Kaliningrad, approved only in 1991. Then and began preparatory work on mastering this unique field. Originally established Association of Business Cooperation "basis", which grew later in the corporation. However, the first steps of its demonstrated failure of the structural unit of a processing capacity of the national wealth of Ukraine as amber.
charming and legendary amber - amber or "burnt stones" as long call it in Polissia - is one of the greatest treasures of Polissia.
Their origin and physico-chemical properties similar to Polissya amber Baltic amber, although it differs from it smaller, but instead a greater variety of color and more rare inclusions - ancient fossilized insects and other preserved alive beings, original air bubbles, etc..
It should be remembered that real amber is the only Baltic coast and in Polissia all other similar stones - for example, the so-called "Baikal amber", "Brazilian amber", etc. - is not original jewel-amber, but only burshtynopodibnymy pitches ...
According to current scientific evidence, 40 million years ago on the Polissya was an island surrounded by the "Polish" and "Belarusian" sea, on the banks of which grew those pine trees, pine resin, which we now dig as Amber . Amber jewelry valued more local Eneolithic tribes later ancient Slavs, Ruthenians and Lithuanians, Ukrainian. A costly amber stone dug just - dug in the "right places" deep pit. With amber masters made charms from the evil eye, coral, amber and amber necklaces, rings, amber earrings and bracelets. Amber is also used for medicinal purposes, and later on it made mouthpieces and cigarette cases.
At the time of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Polissya amber was exported to most of Lithuania, whose residents have long called their country not only as "Amber land", but paid tribute Polissya amber for its unique, unusual Baltic amber color and color - light green -green and yellow-green, blue-green and light yellow color and even amazing pure white and black amber. The reason is obviously that Polissya amber formed a little further from the sea than the Baltic - Prussian (Kaliningrad), Lithuanian or Latvian amber. So, for example, white amber - it's just a miracle in the world it is very small - no more than 1-2% of the world's amber!
general, on the right bank Polissya amber deposits are known in modern Rivne, Zhytomyr and Kyiv regions that are Polessky burshtynonosnyy area, which is the largest part of our content succinic province - Baltic-Dnieper. But the main center of production of amber today is the urban village Klesov Sarnenskyi Rivne region, where the largest Ukrainian amber deposit (Klesiv burshtynonosna zone). It is expected that soon will begin its work, two other mining district - Dubrovitska and Volodymyrets in homologous regions of Rivne.
has long been known that beauty, healing properties of amber and its benefits are very diverse. In particular, Polissya made of amber and amber or as succinic acid, which has become especially popular in the late 20th century. Now succinic acid is used as a food additive and biological stimulators.
Polessky amber: specific composition and properties
Amber - zkam'yanila fossil resin of ancient extinct coniferous de ¬ roar, which retained in coastal sandy sediments purity, clarity and vibrant color. Pine resin from which the amber was formed from Latin - "pinus suktsynifera." Because amber is called suktsynitom. The most devel ¬ povsyudzhenym is Baltic suktsynit. Fusobacterium amber Ukraine ¬ yiny (districts of Kyiv, Kharkiv and Volyn), on the North Sea coast. All other fossil resins, which are found in a variety of fields and name ¬ nor the location ("amber" Baikal, Sakhalin, Gran ¬ landskyy, British, Mexican, Brazilian, Sicilian, etc..) Or which are special names (aykayit, almashyt, ambryt, amber ¬ diffusion, bekkeryt, birmit, valhovit etc..) - just burshtynopodibni resin. However, amber is often called any fossil resin.